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Installation Overview

Try out DSpace 7 before you install

If you'd like to quickly try out DSpace 7 before a full installation, see Try out DSpace 7 for instructions on a quick install via Docker.

As of version 7 (and above), the DSpace application is split into a "frontend" (User Interface) and a "backend" (Server API).  Most institutions will want to install BOTH.  However, you can decide whether to run them on the same machine or separate machines.

  • The DSpace Frontend consists of a User Interface built on  It cannot be run alone, as it requires a valid DSpace Backend to function.  The frontend provides all user-facing functionality
  • The DSpace Backend consists of a Server API ("server" webapp), built on Spring Boot.  It can be run standalone, however it has no user interface.  The backend provides all machine-based interfaces, including the REST API, OAI-PMH, SWORD (v1 and v2) and RDF.

We recommend installing the Backend first, as the Frontend requires a valid Backend to run properly.

Installing the Backend (Server API)

Work in progress (Feedback welcome)

These installation instructions are a work-in-progress and based heavily on the DSpace 6.x installation instructions.  Feedback or improvements are welcome.

Backend Requirements

UNIX-like OS or Microsoft Windows

  • UNIX-like operating system (Linux, HP/UX, Mac OSX, etc.) : Many distributions of Linux/Unix come with some of the dependencies below pre-installed or easily installed via updates.  You should consult your particular distribution's documentation or local system administrators to determine what is already available.
  • Microsoft Windows:  While DSpace can be run on Windows servers, most institutions tend to run it on a UNIX-like operating system.

Java JDK 11 (OpenJDK or Oracle JDK)

Make sure to install the JDK and not just the JRE

 At this time, DSpace requires the full JDK (Java Development Kit) be installed, rather than just the JRE (Java Runtime Environment).  So, please be sure that you are installing the full JDK and not just the JRE.

Only JDK11 is fully supported

Older versions of Java are unsupported. This includes JDK v7-10.

Newer versions of Java may work (e.g. JDK v12-16), but we do not recommend running them in Production.  We highly recommend running only Java LTS (Long Term Support) releases in Production, as non-LTS releases may not receive ongoing security fixes. As of this DSpace release, JDK11 is the most recent Java LTS release, with the next one (JDK17) being due sometime around September 2021.  As soon as the next Java LTS release is available, we will analyze it for compatibility with this release of DSpace.  For more information on Java releases, see the Java roadmaps for Oracle and/or OpenJDK.

Apache Maven 3.3.x or above (Java build tool)

Maven is necessary in the first stage of the build process to assemble the installation package for your DSpace instance. It gives you the flexibility to customize DSpace using the existing Maven projects found in the [dspace-source]/dspace/modules directory or by adding in your own Maven project to build the installation package for DSpace, and apply any custom interface "overlay" changes.

Maven can be downloaded from

Configuring a Maven Proxy

You can configure a proxy to use for some or all of your HTTP requests in Maven. The username and password are only required if your proxy requires basic authentication (note that later releases may support storing your passwords in a secured keystore‚ in the meantime, please ensure your settings.xml file (usually ${user.home}/.m2/settings.xml) is secured with permissions appropriate for your operating system).



Apache Ant 1.8 or later (Java build tool)

Apache Ant is required for the second stage of the build process (deploying/installing the application). First, Maven is used to construct the installer ([dspace-source]/dspace/target/dspace-installer), after which Ant is used to install/deploy DSpace to the installation directory.

Ant can be downloaded from the following location:

Relational Database (PostgreSQL or Oracle)

PostgreSQL v11 (with pgcrypto installed)

PostgreSQL v9.4 to v11 will likely work, but earlier versions are less well tested.

Active development/testing on DSpace 7 has occurred on PostgreSQL v11.  However, it is likely that the backend would also function on PostgreSQL v9.4 - v10.  At this time we have not performed sufficient testing on these earlier versions to add them to the prerequisites listing.

DSpace 7 will definitely not function on versions below 9.4 as DSpace requires installing and running the pgcrypto extension (see below) v1.1, which was not available until PostgreSQL v9.4.

  • PostgreSQL can be downloaded from  It is also provided via many operating system package managers
  • Install the pgcrypto extension.  It will also need to be enabled on your DSpace Database (see Installation instructions below for more info). The pgcrypto extension allows DSpace to create UUIDs (universally unique identifiers) for all objects in DSpace, which means that (internal) object identifiers are now globally unique and no longer tied to database sequences.
    • On most Linux operating systems (Ubuntu, Debian, RedHat), this extension is provided in the "postgresql-contrib" package in your package manager. So, ensure you've installed "postgresql-contrib".
    • On Windows, this extension should be provided automatically by the installer (check your "[PostgreSQL]/share/extension" folder for files starting with "pgcrypto")
  • Unicode (specifically UTF-8) support must be enabled (but this is enabled by default).
  • Once installed, you need to enable TCP/IP connections (DSpace uses JDBC):
    • In postgresql.conf: uncomment the line starting: listen_addresses = 'localhost'.  This is the default, in recent PostgreSQL releases, but you should at least check it.
    • Then tighten up security a bit by editing pg_hba.conf and adding this line:

      host dspace dspace md5

      This should appear before any lines matching all databases, because the first matching rule governs.

    • Then restart PostgreSQL.
Oracle 10g or later
  • Details on acquiring Oracle can be downloaded from the following location: You will need to create a database for DSpace. Make sure that the character set is one of the Unicode character sets. DSpace uses UTF-8 natively, and it is suggested that the Oracle database use the same character set. You will also need to create a user account for DSpace (e.g. dspace) and ensure that it has permissions to add and remove tables in the database. Refer to the Quick Installation for more details.
    • NOTE: If the database server is not on the same machine as DSpace, you must install the Oracle client to the DSpace server and point tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files to the database the Oracle server.

Apache Solr 7.2.1 or later (full-text index/search service)

Solr can be obtained at the Apache Software Foundation site for Lucene and Solr.  You may wish to read portions of the quick-start tutorial to make yourself familiar with Solr's layout and operation.  Unpack a Solr .tgz or .zip archive in a place where you keep software that is not handled by your operating system's package management tools, and arrange to have it running whenever DSpace is running.  You should ensure that Solr's index directories will have plenty of room to grow.  You should also ensure that port 8983 is not in use by something else, or configure Solr to use a different port.

If you are looking for a good place to put Solr, consider /opt or /usr/local.  You can simply unpack Solr in one place and use it.  Or you can configure Solr to keep its indexes elsewhere, if you need to – see the Solr documentation for how to do this.

It is not necessary to dedicate a Solr instance to DSpace, if you already have one and want to use it.  Simply copy DSpace's cores to a place where they will be discovered by Solr.  See below.

Servlet Engine (Apache Tomcat 8.5 or later, Jetty, Caucho Resin or equivalent)

  • Apache Tomcat 8.5 or later. Tomcat can be downloaded from the following location:  
    • The Tomcat owner (i.e. the user that Tomcat runs as) must have read/write access to the DSpace installation directory (i.e. [dspace])There are a few common ways this may be achieved:
      • One option is to specifically give the Tomcat user (often named "tomcat") ownership of the [dspace] directories, for example:

        # Change [dspace] and all subfolders to be owned by "tomcat"
        chown -R tomcat:tomcat [dspace]
      • Another option is to have Tomcat itself run as a new user named "dspace" (see installation instructions below).  Some operating systems make modifying the Tomcat "run as" user easily modifiable via an environment variable named TOMCAT_USER.  This option may be more desirable if you have multiple Tomcat instances running, and you do not want all of them to run under the same Tomcat owner.
    • You need to ensure that Tomcat has a) enough memory to run DSpace and b) uses UTF-8 as its default file encoding for international character support. So ensure in your startup scripts (etc) that the following environment variable is set: JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx512M -Xms64M -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8"
    • Modifications in [tomcat]/conf/server.xml : You also need to alter Tomcat's default configuration to support searching and browsing of multi-byte UTF-8 correctly. You need to add a configuration option to the <Connector> element in [tomcat]/config/server.xml: URIEncoding="UTF-8" e.g. if you're using the default Tomcat config, it should read:

      <!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
      <Connector port="8080"

      You may change the port from 8080 by editing it in the file above, and by setting the variable CONNECTOR_PORT in server.xml.  You should set the URIEncoding even if you are running Tomcat behind a proxy (Apache HTTPD, Nginx, etc.) via AJP.

  • Jetty or Caucho Resin DSpace will also run on an equivalent servlet Engine, such as Jetty ( or Caucho Resin ( If you choose to use a different servlet container, please ensure that it supports Servlet Spec 3.1 (or above).
    • Jetty and Resin are configured for correct handling of UTF-8 by default.

Git (code version control)

Currently, there is a known bug in DSpace where a third-party Maven Module expects git to be available (in order to support the ./dspace version commandline tool).  We are working on a solution within this ticket:  DS-3418 - Getting issue details... STATUS

For the time being, you can work around this problem by installing Git locally:

Backend Installation

  1. Install all the Installing DSpace#Backend Requirements listed above.
  2. Create a DSpace operating system user (optional) .  As noted in the prerequisites above, Tomcat (or Jetty, etc) must run as an operating system user account that has full read/write access to the DSpace installation directory (i.e. [dspace]).  Either you must ensure the Tomcat owner also owns [dspace], OR you can create a new "dspace" user account, and ensure that Tomcat also runs as that account:

    useradd -m dspace
  3. Download the latest DSpace release from the DSpace GitHub Repository. You can choose to either download the zip or tar.gz file provided by GitHub, or you can use "git" to checkout the appropriate tag (e.g. dspace-7.0-beta2) or branch.
  4. Unpack the DSpace software. After downloading the software, based on the compression file format, choose one of the following methods to unpack your software:
    1. Zip file. If you downloaded do the following:

    2. .gz file. If you downloaded dspace-7.0-beta.tar.gz do the following:

      gunzip -c dspace-7.0-beta2.tar.gz | tar -xf -

      For ease of reference, we will refer to the location of this unzipped version of the DSpace release as [dspace-source] in the remainder of these instructions. After unpacking the file, the user may wish to change the ownership of the dspace-7.x folder to the "dspace" user. (And you may need to change the group).

  5. Database Setup
    • PostgreSQL:
      • Create a dspace database user (this user can have any name, but we'll assume you name them "dspace"). This is entirely separate from the dspace operating-system user created above:

        createuser --username=postgres --no-superuser --pwprompt dspace

        You will be prompted (twice) for a password for the new dspace user.  Then you'll be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

      • Create a dspace database, owned by the dspace PostgreSQL user. Similar to the previous step, this can only be done by a "superuser" account in PostgreSQL (e.g. postgres):

        createdb --username=postgres --owner=dspace --encoding=UNICODE dspace

        You will be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

      • Finally, you MUST enable the pgcrypto extension on your new dspace database.  Again, this can only be enabled by a "superuser" account (e.g. postgres)

        # Login to the database as a superuser, and enable the pgcrypto extension on this database
        psql --username=postgres dspace -c "CREATE EXTENSION pgcrypto;"

        The "CREATE EXTENSION" command should return with no result if it succeeds. If it fails or throws an error, it is likely you are missing the required pgcrypto extension (see Database Prerequisites above).

        • Alternative method: How to enable pgcrypto via a separate database schema. While the above method of enabling pgcrypto is perfectly fine for the majority of users, there may be some scenarios where a database administrator would prefer to install extensions into a database schema that is separate from the DSpace tables. Developers also may wish to install pgcrypto into a separate schema if they plan to "clean" (recreate) their development database frequently. Keeping extensions in a separate schema from the DSpace tables will ensure developers would NOT have to continually re-enable the extension each time you run a "./dspace database clean". If you wish to install pgcrypto in a separate schema here's how to do that:

          # Login to the database as a superuser
          psql --username=postgres dspace
          # Create a new schema in this database named "extensions" (or whatever you want to name it)
          CREATE SCHEMA extensions;
          # Enable this extension in this new schema
          CREATE EXTENSION pgcrypto SCHEMA extensions;
          # Grant rights to call functions in the extensions schema to your dspace user
          GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA extensions TO dspace;
          # Append "extensions" on the current session's "search_path" (if it doesn't already exist in search_path)
          # The "search_path" config is the list of schemas that Postgres will use
          SELECT set_config('search_path',current_setting('search_path') || ',extensions',false) WHERE current_setting('search_path') !~ '(^|,)extensions(,|$)';
          # Verify the current session's "search_path" and make sure it's correct
          SHOW search_path;
          # Now, update the "dspace" Database to use the same "search_path" (for all future sessions) as we've set for this current session (i.e. via set_config() above)
          ALTER DATABASE dspace SET search_path FROM CURRENT;
    • Oracle:
      • Setting up DSpace to use Oracle is a bit different now. You will need still need to get a copy of the Oracle JDBC driver, but instead of copying it into a lib directory you will need to install it into your local Maven repository. (You'll need to download it first from this location: Run the following command (all on one line):

        mvn install:install-file
      • You need to compile DSpace with an Oracle driver (ojdbc6.jar) corresponding to your Oracle version - update the version in [dspace-source]/pom.xml  E.g.:

      • Create a database for DSpace. Make sure that the character set is one of the Unicode character sets. DSpace uses UTF-8 natively, and it is required that the Oracle database use the same character set. Create a user account for DSpace (e.g. dspace) and ensure that it has permissions to add and remove tables in the database.
      • NOTE: You will need to ensure the proper db.* settings are specified in your local.cfg file (see next step), as the defaults for all of these settings assuming a PostgreSQL database backend.

        db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@host:port/SID
        # e.g. db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@//localhost:1521/xe
        # NOTE: in db.url, SID is the SID of your database defined in tnsnames.ora
        # the default Oracle port is 1521
        # You may also use a full SID definition, e.g.
        # db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@(description=(address_list=(address=(protocol=TCP)(host=localhost)(port=1521)))(connect_data=(service_name=DSPACE)))
        # Oracle driver and dialect
        db.driver = oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver
        db.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.Oracle10gDialect
        # Specify DB username, password and schema to use
        db.username =
        db.password =
        db.schema = ${db.username}
        # For Oracle, schema is equivalent to the username of your database account,
        # so this may be set to ${db.username} in most scenarios
      • Later, during the Maven build step, don't forget to specify mvn package

  6. Initial Configuration (local.cfg):  Create your own [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg configuration file (you may wish to simply copy the provided [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg.EXAMPLE). This local.cfg file can be used to store any configuration changes that you wish to make which are local to your installation (see local.cfg configuration file documentation). ANY setting may be copied into this local.cfg file from the dspace.cfg or any other *.cfg file in order to override the default setting (see note below).  For the initial installation of DSpace, there are some key settings you'll likely want to override, those are provided in the [dspace-source]/dspace/config/local.cfg.EXAMPLE. (NOTE: Settings followed with an asterisk (*) are highly recommended, while all others are optional during initial installation and may be customized at a later time)
    • dspace.dir* - must be set to the [dspace] (installation) directory  (NOTE: On Windows be sure to use forward slashes for the directory path!  For example: "C:/dspace" is a valid path for Windows.)
    • dspace.server.url* - complete URL of this DSpace backend (including port and any subpath).  For example: http://localhost:8080/server/
    • dspace.ui.url* - complete URL of the DSpace frontend (including port and any subpath). REQUIRED for the REST API to fully trust requests from the DSpace frontend. For example: http://localhost:4000/
    • - "Proper" name of your server, e.g. "My Digital Library".
    • solr.server* - complete URL of the Solr server. DSpace makes use of Solr for indexing purposes.  http://localhost:8983/ unless you changed the port or installed Solr on some other host.
    • default.language - Default language for all metadata values (defaults to "en_US")
    • db.url* - The full JDBC URL to your database (examples are provided in the local.cfg.EXAMPLE)
    • db.driver* - Which database driver to use, based on whether you are using PostgreSQL or Oracle
    • db.dialect* - Which database dialect to use, based on whether you are using PostgreSQL or Oracle
    • db.username* - the database username used in the previous step.
    • db.password* - the database password used in the previous step.
    • db.schema* - the database scheme to use (examples are provided in the local.cfg.EXAMPLE)
    • mail.server - fully-qualified domain name of your outgoing mail server.
    • mail.from.address - the "From:" address to put on email sent by DSpace.
    • - mailbox for feedback mail.
    • mail.admin - mailbox for DSpace site administrator.
    • mail.alert.recipient - mailbox for server errors/alerts (not essential but very useful!)
    • mail.registration.notify- mailbox for emails when new users register (optional)

      Your local.cfg file can override ANY settings from other *.cfg files in DSpace

      The provided local.cfg.EXAMPLE only includes a small subset of the configuration settings available with DSpace. It provides a good starting point for your own local.cfg file.

      However, you should be aware that ANY configuration can now be copied into your local.cfg to override the default settings.  This includes ANY of the settings/configurations in:

      • The primary dspace.cfg file ([dspace]/config/dspace.cfg)
      • Any of the module configuration files ([dspace]/config/modules/*.cfg files)

      Individual settings may also be commented out or removed in your local.cfg, in order to re-enable default settings.

      See the Configuration Reference section for more details.

  7. DSpace Directory: Create the directory for the DSpace backend installation (i.e. [dspace]). As root (or a user with appropriate permissions), run:

    mkdir [dspace]
    chown dspace [dspace]

    (Assuming the dspace UNIX username.)

  8. Build the Installation Package: As the dspace UNIX user, generate the DSpace installation package.

    cd [dspace-source]
    mvn package

    Building with Oracle Database Support

    Without any extra arguments, the DSpace installation package is initialized for PostgreSQL. If you want to use Oracle instead, you should build the DSpace installation package as follows:
    mvn package

  9. Install DSpace: As the dspace UNIX user, install DSpace to [dspace]:

    cd [dspace-source]/dspace/target/dspace-installer
    ant fresh_install

    To see a complete list of build targets, run: ant help The most likely thing to go wrong here is the test of your database connection. See the Installing DSpace (OLD - to be removed)#Common Problems Section below for more details.

  10. Deploy Server web application: The DSpace backend consists of a single "server" webapp (in [dspace]/webapps/server).  You need to deploy this webapp into your Servlet Container (e.g. Tomcat).  Generally, there are two options (or techniques) which you could use...either configure Tomcat to find the DSpace "server" webapp, or copy the "server" webapp into Tomcat's own webapps folder.
    • Technique A. Tell your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation where to find your DSpace web application(s). As an example, in the directory [tomcat]/conf/Catalina/localhost you could add files similar to the following (but replace [dspace]with your installation location):

      DEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace Server webapp: server.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      The name of the file (not including the suffix ".xml") will be the name of the context, so for example server.xml defines the context at http://host:8080/server.  To define the root context (http://host:8080/), name that context's file ROOT.xml.   Optionally, you can also choose to install the old, deprecated "rest" webapp if you

    • Technique B. Simple and complete. You copy only (or all) of the DSpace Web application(s) you wish to use from the [dspace]/webapps directory to the appropriate directory in your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation. For example:
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/* [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy all the web applications to Tomcat).
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/server [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy only the Server web application to Tomcat.)

      To define the root context (http://host:8080/), name that context's directory ROOT.

  11. Optionally, also install the deprecated DSpace 6.x REST API web application.  If you previously used the DSpace 6.x REST API, for backwards compatibility the old, deprecated "rest" webapp is still available to install (in [dspace]/webapps/rest). It is NOT used by the DSpace frontend.  So, most users should skip this step.
  12. Copy Solr cores:  DSpace installation creates a set of four empty Solr cores already configured.  Copy them from [dspace]/solr to the place where your Solr instance will discover them.  Start (or re-start) Solr.  For example:

    cp -R [dspace]/solr/* [solr]/server/solr/configsets
    [solr]/bin/solr restart

    You can check the status of Solr and your new DSpace cores by using its administrative web interface.  Browse to http://localhost:8983/ to see if Solr is running well, then look at the cores by selecting (on the left) Core Admin or using the Core Selector drop list.

  13. Create an Administrator Account:  Create an initial administrator account from the command line:

    [dspace]/bin/dspace create-administrator

  14. Initial Startup!  Now the moment of truth! Start up (or restart) Tomcat/Jetty/Resin.
    1. REST API Interface - (e.g.)
    2. OAI-PMH Interface - (e.g.)
    3. For an example of what the default backend looks like, visit the Demo Backend:

Installing the Frontend (User Interface)

Work in progress (Feedback welcome)

These installation instructions are a work-in-progress.  They do NOT yet include production-ready installation scenarios for running the (Angular) frontend via production tools like PM2 or Passenger.  Feedback or improvements are welcome.

Frontend Requirements

UNIX-like OS or Microsoft Windows

  • UNIX-like operating system (Linux, HP/UX, Mac OSX, etc.) : Many distributions of Linux/Unix come with some of the dependencies below pre-installed or easily installed via updates.  You should consult your particular distribution's documentation or local system administrators to determine what is already available.
  • Microsoft Windows:  While DSpace can be run on Windows servers, most institutions tend to run it on a UNIX-like operating system.

Node.js (v10.x or v12.x)

  • Node.js can be found at  We recommend running a Long Term Support (LTS) version (latest is 12.x).  Non-LTS versions are not recommended.
  • Node.js is a Javascript runtime that also provides npm (Node Package Manager). It is used to both build and run the frontend.

Yarn (v1.x)

DSpace 7.x Backend (see above)

  • The DSpace Frontend cannot function without an installed DSpace Backend.  Follow the instructions above.
  • The Frontend and Backend need not be installed on the same server.  They may be installed on separate machines as long as the two machines can connect to one another via HTTP or HTTPS.

Frontend Installation

  1. First, install all the Installing DSpace#Frontend Requirements listed above.
  2. Download the latest dspace-angular release from the DSpace GitHub repository. You can choose to either download the zip or tar.gz file provided by GitHub, or you can use "git" to checkout the appropriate tag (e.g. dspace-7.0-beta3) or branch.
  3. Install all necessary local dependencies by running the following from within the unzipped "dspace-angular" directory

    # change directory to our repo
    cd dspace-angular
    # install the local dependencies
    yarn install
  4. Modify the Frontend configuration to point at your DSpace Backend
    1. By default the Frontend will be configured to use the Demo Backend at
    2. Modify the "rest" section of the [dspace-angular]/src/environment/environment.common.ts configuration file, pointing it at your installed DSpace Backend.  For example:

      // This example is valid if your Backend is running at http://localhost:8080/server/
      // It should be kept in sync with the value of "dspace.server.url" in the backend local.cfg
      rest: {
         ssl: false,
         host: 'localhost',
         port: 8080,
         // NOTE: Space is capitalized because 'namespace' is a reserved string in TypeScript
         nameSpace: '/server/api'
    3. (If necessary) modify the "ui" section of the [dspace-angular]/src/environment/environment.common.ts configuration file to match the host & port that you plan to run the UI from.  By default, these settings assume you will run the UI from http://localhost:4000/
      // This example is valid if your UI will be running at http://localhost:4000
      // It should be kept in sync with the value of "dspace.ui.url" in the backend local.cfg
      ui: {
         ssl: false,
         host: 'localhost',
         port: 4000,
         // NOTE: Space is capitalized because 'namespace' is a reserved string in TypeScript
         nameSpace: '/'
    4. Alternatively, if you want, you can copy the "environment.common.ts" to a new file called "" and modify that new file.
  5. Start the application

    # build and start the application
    yarn start
    1. To stop the application at any time, use Ctrl + C
  6. After a few minutes, the user interface will be running on your local machine. 
    1. Visit http://localhost:4000/
    2. For an example of what the default frontend looks like, visit the Demo Frontend:

What Next?

After a successful installation, you may want to take a closer look at

If you've run into installation problems, you may want to...

  • Review commons installation issues (LINK COMING)
  • Ask for Support via one of the support options documented on that page
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