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  • PostgreSQL 9.0 or later: PostgreSQL can be downloaded from .Unicode (specifically UTF-8) support must be enabled (but this is enabled by default). Once installed, you need to enable TCP/IP connections (DSpace uses JDBC):
    • In postgresql.conf: uncomment the line starting: listen_addresses = 'localhost'.  This is the default, in recent PostgreSQL releases, but you should at least check it.
    • Then tighten up security a bit by editing pg_hba.conf and adding this line: host dspace dspace md5. This should appear before any lines matching all databases, because the first matching rule governs.
    • Then restart PostgreSQL.
  • Oracle 10g or later: Details on acquiring Oracle can be downloaded from the following location: You will need to create a database for DSpace. Make sure that the character set is one of the Unicode character sets. DSpace uses UTF-8 natively, and it is suggested that the Oracle database use the same character set. You will also need to create a user account for DSpace (e.g. dspace) and ensure that it has permissions to add and remove tables in the database. Refer to the Quick Installation for more details.
    • NOTE: If the database server is not on the same machine as DSpace, you must install the Oracle client to the DSpace server and point tnsnames.ora and listener.ora files to the database the Oracle server.
    • NOTE: DSpace uses sequences to generate unique object IDs — beware Oracle sequences, which are said to lose their values when doing a database export/import, say restoring from a backup. Be sure to run the script etc/oracle/update-sequences.sql after importing.
    • For people interested in switching from Postgres to Oracle, I know of no tools that would do this automatically. You will need to recreate the community, collection, and eperson structure in the Oracle system, and then use the item export and import tools to move your content over.

Servlet Engine (Apache Tomcat 7 or


8, Jetty, Caucho Resin or equivalent)

titleTomcat 7 Version

If you are using Tomcat 7, we recommend running Tomcat 7.0.30 or above. Tomcat 7.0.29 and lower versions suffer from a memory leak. As a result, those versions of tomcat require an unusual high amount of memory to run DSpace. This has been resolved as of Tomcat 7.0.30. More information can be found in DS-1553

titleTomcat 8 Support

Tomcat 8 may encounter issues with JAR loading order if you are actively customizing classes in "/modules/additions".  See for details. This issue was fixed in DSpace 6.

  • Apache Tomcat 7 or later8. Tomcat  Tomcat can be downloaded from the following location:
    • The Tomcat owner (i.e. the user that Tomcat runs as) must have read/write access to the DSpace installation directory (i.e. [dspace])There are a few common ways this may be achieved:
      • One option is to specifically give the Tomcat user (often named "tomcat") ownership of the [dspace] directories, for example:

        Code Block
        # Change [dspace] and all subfolders to be owned by "tomcat"
        chown -R tomcat:tomcat [dspace]

      • Another option is to have Tomcat itself run as a new user named "dspace" (see installation instructions below).  Some operating systems make modifying the Tomcat "run as" user easily modifiable via an environment variable named TOMCAT_USER.  This option may be more desireable if you have multiple Tomcat instances running, and you do not want all of them to run under the same Tomcat owner.
    • You need to ensure that Tomcat has a) enough memory to run DSpace and b) uses UTF-8 as its default file encoding for international character support. So ensure in your startup scripts (etc) that the following environment variable is set: JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx512M -Xms64M -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8"
    • Modifications in [tomcat]/conf/server.xml : You also need to alter Tomcat's default configuration to support searching and browsing of multi-byte UTF-8 correctly. You need to add a configuration option to the <Connector> element in [tomcat]/config/server.xml: URIEncoding="UTF-8"e.g. if you're using the default Tomcat config, it should read:

      Code Block
      <!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->
      <Connector port="8080"

      You may change the port from 8080 by editing it in the file above, and by setting the variable CONNECTOR_PORT in server.xml.

    • Tomcat 8 and above is using at least Java 1.7 for JSP compilation. However, by default, Tomcat 7 uses Java 1.6 for JSP compilation. If you want to use Java 1.7 in your .jsp files, you have to change the configuration of Tomcat 7. Edit the file called web.xml in the configuration directory of your Tomcat instance (${CATALINA_HOME}/conf in Tomcat notation). Look for a servlet definition using the org.apache.jasper.servlet.JSPServlet servlet-class and add two init parameters compilerSourceVM and compilerTargetVM as you see it in the example below. Then restart Tomcat.

      Code Block

  • Jetty or Caucho Resin DSpace will also run on an equivalent servlet Engine, such as Jetty ( or Caucho Resin ( Jetty and Resin are configured for correct handling of UTF-8 by default.


  1. Create the DSpace user (optional).  As noted in the prerequisites above, Tomcat (or Jetty, etc) must run as an operating system user account that has full read/write access to the DSpace installation directory (i.e. [dspace]).  Either you must ensure the Tomcat owner also owns [dspace], OR you can create a new "dspace" user account, and ensure that Tomcat also runs as that account:

    Code Block
    useradd -m dspace

  2. Download the latest DSpace release. There are two version available with each release of DSpace: (dspace-n.x-release. and dspace-n.x-src-release.zzz); you only need to choose one. If you want a copy of all underlying Java source code, you should download the Within each version, you have a choice of compressed file format. Choose the one that best fits your environment.
    1. Alternatively, you may choose to check out the latest release from the DSpace GitHub Repository.  In this case, you'd be checking out the full Java source code.  You'd also want to be sure to checkout the appropriate tag (e.g. dspace-5.0) or branch. For more information on using / developing from the GitHub Repository, see: Development with Git
  3. Unpack the DSpace software. After downloading the software, based on the compression file format, choose one of the following methods to unpack your software:
    1. Zip file. If you downloaded do the following:

      Code Block

    2. .gz file. If you downloaded dspace-5.x-release.tar.gz do the following:

      Code Block
      gunzip -c dspace-5.x-release.tar.gz | tar -xf -

    3. .bz2 file. If you downloaded do the following:

      Code Block
      bunzip2 | tar -xf -

      For ease of reference, we will refer to the location of this unzipped version of the DSpace release as [dspace-source] in the remainder of these instructions. After unpacking the file, the user may wish to change the ownership of the dspace-5.x-release to the "dspace" user. (And you may need to change the group).

  4. Database Setup
    • Also see "Relational Database" prerequisite notes above
    • PostgreSQL:
      • A PostgreSQL JDBC driver is configured as part of the default DSpace build. You no longer need to copy any PostgreSQL jars to get PostgreSQL installed.
      • Create a dspace database user. This is entirely separate from the dspace operating-system user created above (you are still logged in as "root"):

        Code Block
        createuser --username=postgres --no-superuser --pwprompt dspace

        You will be prompted (twice) for a password for the new dspace user.  Then you'll be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

      • Create a dspace database, owned by the dspace PostgreSQL user (you are still logged in as 'root'):

        Code Block
        createdb --username=postgres --owner=dspace --encoding=UNICODE dspace

        You will be prompted for the password of the PostgreSQL superuser (postgres).

    • Oracle:
      • Setting up DSpace to use Oracle is a bit different now. You will need still need to get a copy of the Oracle JDBC driver, but instead of copying it into a lib directory you will need to install it into your local Maven repository. (You'll need to download it first from this location: Run the following command (all on one line):

        Code Block
        mvn install:install-file

      • You need to compile DSpace with an Oracle driver (ojdbc6.jar) corresponding to your Oracle version - update the version in [dspace-source]/pom.xml  E.g.:

        Code Block

      • Create a database for DSpace. Make sure that the character set is one of the Unicode character sets. DSpace uses UTF-8 natively, and it is required that the Oracle database use the same character set. Create a user account for DSpace (e.g. dspace) and ensure that it has permissions to add and remove tables in the database.
      • Uncomment and edit the Oracle database settings in [dspace-source]/ (see below for more information on the file):

        Code Block
        db.driver = oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver
        db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@host:port/SID

        Where SID is the SID of your database defined in tnsnames.ora, default Oracle port is 1521.
        Alternatively, you can use a full SID definition, e.g.:

        Code Block
        db.url = jdbc:oracle:thin:@(description=(address_list=(address=(protocol=TCP)(host=localhost)(port=1521)))(connect_data=(service_name=DSPACE)))

      • Later, during the Maven build step, don't forget to specify mvn package

  5. Initial Configuration: Edit [dspace-source]/  This properties file contains the basic settings necessary to actually build/install DSpace for the first time (see Configuration for more detail).  In particular you'll need to set these properties -- examples or defaults are provided in the file:
    • dspace.install.dir - must be set to the [dspace] (installation) directory  (On Windows be sure to use forward slashes for the directory path!  For example: "C:/dspace" is a valid path for Windows.)
    • dspace.hostname - fully-qualified domain name of web server.
    • dspace.baseUrl - complete URL of this server's DSpace home page but without any context eg. /xmlui, /oai, etc.
    • - "Proper" name of your server, e.g. "My Digital Library".
    • solr.server - complete URL of the Solr server. DSpace makes use of Solr for indexing purposes.  
    • default.language
    • db.driver
    • db.url
    • db.username - the database username used in the previous step.
    • db.password - the database password used in the previous step.
    • mail.server - fully-qualified domain name of your outgoing mail server.
    • mail.from.address - the "From:" address to put on email sent by DSpace.
    • - mailbox for feedback mail.
    • mail.admin - mailbox for DSpace site administrator.
    • mail.alert.recipient - mailbox for server errors/alerts (not essential but very useful!)
    • mail.registration.notify- mailbox for emails when new users register (optional)


      The "" file is provided as a convenient method of setting only those configurations necessary to install/upgrade DSpace. Any settings changed in this file, will be automatically copied over to the full "dspace.cfg" file (which is held in [dspace-source]/dspace/config/dspace.cfg).  Refer to the General Configuration section for a fuller explanation.

      It is also worth noting that you may choose to copy/rename the "" under a different name for different environments (e.g. "", "", and "").  You can choose which properties file you want to build DSpace with by passing a "-Denv" (environment) flag to the "mvn package" command (e.g. "mvn package -Denv=test" would build using "  See General Configuration section for more details.

      titleDo not remove or comment out settings in

      When you edit the "" file (or a custom *.properties file), take care not to remove or comment out any settings.  Doing so, may cause your final "dspace.cfg" file to be misconfigured with regards to that particular setting.  Instead, if you wish to remove/disable a particular setting, just clear out its value.  For example, if you don't want to be notified of new user registrations, ensure the "mail.registration.notify" setting has no value, e.g.


  6. DSpace Directory: Create the directory for the DSpace installation (i.e. [dspace]). As root (or a user with appropriate permissions), run:

    Code Block
    mkdir [dspace]
    chown dspace [dspace]

    (Assuming the dspace UNIX username.)

  7. Build the Installation Package: As the dspace UNIX user, generate the DSpace installation package.

    Code Block
    cd [dspace-source]
    mvn package

    titleBuilding with Oracle Database Support

    Without any extra arguments, the DSpace installation package is initialized for PostgreSQL. If you want to use Oracle instead, you should build the DSpace installation package as follows:
    mvn package

    titleEnabling and building the DSpace 5 Mirage 2 theme

    Mirage 2 is a responsive theme for the XML User Interface, added as a new feature in DSpace 5. It has not yet replaced the Mirage 1 theme as the XMLUI default theme.
    The Mirage 2 build requires git to be installed on your server. Install git before attempting the Mirage 2 build. 

    To enable Mirage 2, add the following to the  <themes>  section of  src/dspace/config/xmlui.xconf , replacing the currently active theme:

     <theme name="Mirage 2" regex=".*" path="Mirage2/" /> 

    It is important to do this before executing the maven build.

    Mirage 2 is not yet activated in the default "mvn package" build. To include it as part of the build, run:  

        mvn package -Dmirage2.on=true

    The speed of this specific step of the build can be increased by installing local copies of the specific dependencies required for building Mirage 2. The Mirage 2 developer documentation provides detailed instructions for these installations. After the installation of these dependencies, you can choose to run:


        mvn package -Dmirage2.on=true -Dmirage2.deps.included=false

    Warning: The Mirage 2 build process should NOT be run as "root". It must be run as a non-root user. For more information see: Mirage 2 Common Build Issues

    titleDefaults to building installation package with settings from ""

    Without any extra arguments, the DSpace installation package will be initialized using the settings in the [dspace-source]/ file.  However, if you want it to build using a custom properties file, you may specify the "-Denv" (environment) flag as follows:

    mvn -Denv=test package   (would build the installation package using a custom [dspace-source]/ file)

    mvn -Denv=local package   (would build the installation package using a custom [dspace-source]/ file)

    See General Configuration section for more details.

  8. Install DSpace: As the dspace UNIX user, install DSpace to [dspace]:

    Code Block
    cd [dspace-source]/dspace/target/dspace-installer
    ant fresh_install


    To see a complete list of build targets, run: ant help The most likely thing to go wrong here is the test of your database connection. See the Common Problems Section below for more details.

  9. Decide which DSpace Web Applications you want to install. DSpace comes with a variety of web applications (in [dspace]/webapps), each of which provides a different "interface" to your DSpace.  Which ones you install is up to you, but there are a few that we highly recommend (see below):

    1. "xmlui" = This is the XML-based User Interface (XMLUI), based on Apache Cocoon. It comes with a variety of out-of-the-box themes, including Mirage 1 (the default) and Mirage 2 (based on Bootstrap). Between the "xmlui" and "jspui", you likely only need to choose one.

    2. "jspui" = This is the JSP-based User Interface (JSPUI), which is based on BootstrapBetween the "xmlui" and "jspui", you likely only need to choose one.

    3. "solr" (required) = This is Apache Solr web application, which is used by the "xmlui" and "jspui" (for search & browse functionality), as well as the OAI-PMH interface. It must be installed in support of either UI.

    4. "oai" = This is the DSpace OAI interface. It allows for Metadata and Bitstream (content-file) harvesting, supporting OAI-PMH (Protocol for Metadata Harvest) and OAI-ORE (Object Reuse and Exchange) protocols
    5. "rdf" ( new ) = This is the DSpace RDF interface supporting Linked (Open) Data.
    6. "rest" = This is the DSpace REST API
    7. "sword" = This is the DSpace SWORDv1 interface. More info on SWORD protocol and its usage.
    8. "swordv2" = This is the DSpace SWORDv2 interface. More info on SWORD protocol and its usage.
    9. "lni" (deprecated) = This is the DSpace Lightweight Networking Interface (LNI), supporting WebDAV / SOAP / RPC API.  It is disabled by default as we recommend using REST or SWORD for most activities. In order to build it you must rebuild DSpace with the following flag: mvn package -Pdspace-lni
  10. Deploy Web Applications:
    Please note that in the first instance you should refer to the appropriate documentation for your Web Server of choice. The following instructions are meant as a handy guide. You have two choices or techniques for having Tomcat/Jetty/Resin serve up your web applications: 
    • Technique A. Tell your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation where to find your DSpace web application(s). As an example, in the directory [tomcat]/conf/Catalina/localhost you could add files similar to the following (but replace [dspace]with your installation location):

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT FOR DSpace XML User Interface: xmlui.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace JSP User Interface: jspui.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace Solr index: solr.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      titleDEFINE A CONTEXT PATH FOR DSpace OAI User Interface: oai.xml
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      Code Block
      <?xml version='1.0'?>

      The name of the file (not including the suffix ".xml") will be the name of the context, so for example xmlui.xml defines the context at http://host:8080/xmlui.  To define the root context (http://host:8080/), name that context's file ROOT.xml.

      titleTomcat Context Settings in Production

      The above Tomcat Context Settings show adding the following to each <Context> element:

      reloadable="true" cachingAllowed="false"

      These settings are extremely useful to have when you are first getting started with DSpace, as they let you tweak the DSpace XMLUI (XSLTs or CSS) or JSPUI (JSPs) and see your changes get automatically reloaded by Tomcat (without having to restart Tomcat).   However, it is worth noting that the Apache Tomcat documentation recommends Production sites leave the default values in place (reloadable="false" cachingAllowed="true"), as allowing Tomcat to automatically reload all changes may result in "significant runtime overhead". 

      It is entirely up to you whether to keep these Tomcat settings in place.  We just recommend beginning with them, so that you can more easily customize your site without having to require a Tomcat restart.  Smaller DSpace sites may not notice any performance issues with keeping these settings in place in Production.  Larger DSpace sites may wish to ensure that Tomcat performance is more streamlined.

    • Technique B. Simple and complete. You copy only (or all) of the DSpace Web application(s) you wish to use from the [dspace]/webapps directory to the appropriate directory in your Tomcat/Jetty/Resin installation. For example:
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/* [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy all the web applications to Tomcat).
      cp -R [dspace]/webapps/jspui [tomcat]/webapps* (This will copy only the jspui web application to Tomcat.)
  11. Initialize the DSpace Database (optional): While this step is optional (as the DSpace database will auto-initialize itself on first startup), it's always good to verify one last time that your database connection is working properly.  To initialize the database run: (for more information on "database migrate" see Database Utilities

    Code Block
    [dspace]/bin/dspace database migrate

  12. Administrator Account:  Create an initial administrator account from the command line:

    Code Block
    [dspace]/bin/dspace create-administrator

  13. Initial Startup!  Now the moment of truth! Start up (or restart) Tomcat/Jetty/Resin. Visit the base URL(s) of your server, depending on which DSpace web applications you want to use. You should see the DSpace home page. Congratulations! Base URLs of DSpace Web Applications: